Comment fonctionne l'organisme lors de l'effort?

L'organisme lors de l'effort

 

 

Afin que les cellules musculaires puissent fonctionner normalement, elles doivent recevoir de l'oxygène et des nutriments.

A) Consommation d'oxygène.

Lors de la contraction musculaire le muscle utilise de l'oxygène et évacue du dioxyde de carbone. Pour effectuer ces fonctions l'organisme possède deux systèmes : le système respiratoire et le système circulatoire.

1) Le système respiratoire pendant l'effort.

- Au repos la fonction ventilatoire est de 12 à 20 mouvements respiratoires par minute. L'inspiration devient plus profonde et l'expiration plus active.

-Pendant l'effort le débit ventilatoire passe de 7 litres par minute à 60 litres par minute.

-On remarque que la consommation d'oxygène est multipliée de 3 à 10.

2) Le système cardiovasculaire.

Au début de l'effort le rythme du coeur accélère rapidement, l'accélération la plus importante se fait en moins d'une minute ensuite la fréquence cardiaque se stabilise. La fréquence cardiaque maximum est égal à 220 pulsations par minute. Pendant l'effort le débit veineux augmente (effet dû à la vasoconstriction des veines). Au niveau des poumons, toutes les alveoles pulmonaires se trouvant dans la partie supérieure (non ventilées au repos) se mettent au travail, afin que le sang y subisse l'hématose (oxygenation du sang)

En conclusion le Volume maximum (Vmax) de O² prelevé au niveau des poumons et consommé pendant l'effort musculaire est:

 45-50mL |mn| kg pour les femmes.

 35-40 mL |mn| kg pour les hommes.

Le système circulatoire et cardio vasculaire s'adaptent lors de l'effort physique, pour alimenter le muscle en dioxygène et pour évacuer les déchets de la contraction vusculaire comme le dioxyde de carbonne.

 

B)Consommation de nutiments.

Le glucose est la principle source d'energie de la majorité des cellules. cette molécule appartient à la catégorie des glucides qui sont présent à peu prés dans tous les aliments sous forme d'amidon de glycogéne, de saccharose...

Apporté à l'organisme par absorption intestinale le glucose est ensuite transmis aux cellules par l'intermediaire du sang. Le glucose est ensuite stoqué dans les cellules musculaire sous forme de glycogène. Lors d'un effort ce glycogéne est de nouveau transformé en glucose puis utilisé sur place à des fins énergétique permettant le fonctionnement des muscles. Pendant la contraction d'un muscle le glycogéne permet de former l'ATP( adenosine triphosphate) c'est à dire une molecule de glucose provenant de la glycolyse qui permet de former 2 molécules d'ATP. L'ATP étant la molecule energétique du muscle.

 Le glucose est donc une molécule fondamentale pour tout individu et notamment un sportif.

C'est pourquoi, les sportifs consomment avant ou pendant un effort, beaucoup de glucose sous différentes formes que ce soit:

 -des sucres lents pour un effort prolongé (bananes, fruits secs...)

 -des sucres rapides pour un effort rapide et immédiat (boisson sucrée, confiture ...)

                                                          

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